Friday, July 17, 2015

Cell-Free DNA: An Upcoming Biomarker in Transplantation

After organ transplantation, donor-derived cell-free DNA (ddcfDNA) can be detected in the recipient's blood and urine. Different ddcfDNA quantification techniques have been investigated but a major breakthrough was made with the introduction of digital droplet PCR and massive parallel sequencing creating the opportunity to increase the understanding of ddcfDNA kinetics after transplantation. The observations of increased levels of ddcfDNA during acute rejection and even weeks to months before histologic features of graft rejection point to a possible role of ddcfDNA as an early, noninvasive rejection marker. In this review, we summarize published research on ddcfDNA in the transplantation field thereby elaborating on its clinical utility (read more)

Tuesday, July 7, 2015

Pregnancy-induced HLA antibodies respond more vigorously after renal transplantation than antibodies induced by prior transplantation

Acute antibody mediated rejection after HLA-specific antibody incompatible renal transplantation is related to donor specific HLA antibody (DSA) levels. DSA levels may rise sharply after transplant, and aim of this study was to examine changes in DSA levels, particularly according to the primary sensitising event. Changes in 220 HLA specificities in 64 patients over the first 30days after transplantation were evaluated using microbead assays. The greatest increase from pre-treatment to peak DSA levels was seen in pregnancy-stimulated specificities, median (IQR) increase in MFI of 1981 (94-5870). The next highest increase was for those sensitised by transplant with repeat HLA epitope mismatch, at 546 (-308-2698) (p<0.01). The difference was especially marked when the pre-treatment antibody level was low; with pre-treatment MFI <1000, peak level was >1000 in 19/26 (73%) of pregnancy stimulated specificities, compared with 9/29 (31%) for all others (p<0.001). DSA production to specificities stimulated by previous pregnancy was marked, even from very low pre-transplant levels. By contrast, there was a lower rate of antibody resynthesis to specificities repeated from previous transplants, both at antigen and epitope levels (read more)