Wednesday, November 13, 2013

Randomized Controlled Pilot Study of B Cell–Targeted Induction Therapy in HLA Sensitized Kidney Transplant Recipient

Optimal induction regimens for patients at high risk for antibody and/or cell–mediated rejection have not been established. This pilot, prospective, randomized study evaluated addition of B cell/plasma cell–targeting agents to T cell–based induction with rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) in high immunologic risk renal transplant recipients. Patients were randomized to induction with rATG, rATG + rituximab, rATG + bortezomib or rATG + rituximab + bortezomib. Inclusion criteria were: (1) current cytotoxic panel reactive antibody (PRA) ≥20% or peak cytotoxic PRA ≥50% or (2) T or B cell positive flow crossmatch with donor-specific antibody (DSA) or (3) historical positive serologic or cytotoxic crossmatch or DSA to donor or (4) prior allograft loss with more than one acute rejection. Median overall follow-up was 496 days: 1-year and overall acute rejection were 25% and 27.5%, and 25% of patients developed de novo DSA within 1 year. One-year and overall patient survival were 97.5% and 92.5%, and 1-year and overall death-censored allograft survival were 97.5% and 95%. Renal allograft function posttransplant was similar among all arms. Eight of nine cases of peripheral neuropathy were mild, whereas one case was moderate and required a narcotic prescription. In conclusion, addition of rituximab and/or bortezomib to rATG induction has an acceptable safety/toxicity profile in a high immunologic risk renal transplant population (read more) Print this post

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