Wednesday, October 26, 2016

Should Epitope-Based HLA Compatibility Be Used in the Kidney Allocation System?

The new kidney allocation system (KAS) still applies donor-recipient HLA compatibility at the antigen level and some four-digit alleles have been added recently. This system is used to record unacceptable mismatches for sensitized transplant candidates with serum HLA antibodies. Since the reactivities of such antibodies are specifically associated with epitopes rather than HLA antigens, a more scientifically accurate assessment of mismatch acceptability could be based on epitopes. HLA class I and class II epitope specificity analyses can now be readily performed with serum antibody assays with single allele panels. This report describes an epitope-based HLA compatibility system for KAS and involves recipient and donor HLA typing at the four-digit allele level. It focuses on sensitized patients who have serum antibodies specific for HLA epitopes that can be entered as unacceptable mismatches in the transplant candidate database. Newly developed software programs could readily identify compatible HLA types (read more)

Saturday, June 25, 2016

Acquired down-regulation of donor-specific antibody production after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

The mechanism of long-term B cell immunity against donor blood group antigens in recipients who undergo ABO-incompatible (ABOi) living-donor kidney transplantation (LKTx) is unknown. To address this question, we evaluated serial anti-A and anti-B antibody titers in 50 adult recipients. Donor-specific antibody titers remained low (≤1:4) in 42 recipients (84%). However, antibodies against nondonor blood group antigens were continuously produced in recipients with blood type O. We stimulated recipients’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro to investigate whether B-cells produced antibodies against donor blood group antigens in the absence of graft adsorption in vivo. Antibodies in cell culture supernatant were measured using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Thirty-five healthy volunteers and 57 recipients who underwent ABO-compatible LKTx served as controls. Antibody production in vitro against donor blood group antigens by cells from ABOi LKTx patients was lower than in the control groups. Immunoglobulin deposits were undetectable in biopsies of grafts of eight recipients with low antibody titers (≤1:4) after ABOi LKTx. One patient with blood type A1 who received a second ABOi LKTx from a type B donor did not produce B-specific antibodies. These findings suggest diminished donor-specific antibody-production function in the setting of adult ABOi LKTx (read more)

Saturday, June 4, 2016

Pretransplantation donor-recipient pair seroreactivity against BK polyomavirus predicts viremia and nephropathy after kidney transplantation

Kidney transplant donors are currently not implicated in predicting BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) infection in kidney transplant recipients. It has been postulated, however, that BKPyV infection originates from the kidney allograft. Since BKPyV-seroreactivity correlates with BKPyV-replication and, therefore, might mirror the infectious load, we investigated whether BKPyV-seroreactivity of the donor predicts viremia and BKPyV-associated nephropathy (BKPyVAN) in the recipient. In a retrospective cohort of 407 living kidney donor-recipient pairs pretransplantation donor and recipient sera were tested for BKPyV IgG-levels and correlated with the occurrence of recipient BKPyV viremia and BKPyVAN within one year posttransplantation. As such, donor BKPyV IgG-level was strongly associated with BKPyV viremia and BKPyVAN (p < 0.001), while recipient BKPyV-seroreactivity showed a non-significant inverse trend. Pairing of high BKPyV-seroreactive donors with low seroreactive recipients resulted in a 10-fold increased risk for BKPyV viremia (HR 10.1, 95% CI: 3.5 – 29.0, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, donor BKPyV-seroreactivity was the strongest pretransplantation factor associated with viremia (p < 0.001) and BKPyVAN (p = 0.007). The proportional relation between donor BKPyV-seroreactivity and recipient infection suggests that donor BKPyV-seroreactivity reflects the infectious load of the kidney allograft, and calls for the use of pretransplantation BKPyV-serological testing of (potential) donors and recipients (read more)

Saturday, May 7, 2016

The Risk of Transplant Failure With HLA Mismatch in First Adult Kidney Allografts From Deceased Donors

Background: Since the beginning of the technology, there has been active debate about the role of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matching in kidney allograft survival. Recent studies have reported diminishing importance of HLA matching, which have, in turn, been challenged by reports that suggest the continuing importance of these loci. Given the controversies, we examined the effect of HLA compatibility on kidney allograft survival by studying all first adult kidney transplants in the United States from a deceased donor.
Methods: Using the United Network for Organ Sharing data, we identified first deceased donor kidney transplants between October 1, 1987, and December 31, 2013. Recipients were classified by their number of HLA mismatches. Cox multivariate regression analyses adjusting for recipient and donor transplant characteristics were performed to determine the impact of HLA compatibility on kidney allograft survival.
Results: Study cohort included 189 141 first adult kidney alone transplants, with a total of 994 558 years of kidney allograft follow-up time. Analyses adjusted for recipient and donor characteristics demonstrated a 13% higher risk (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.21) with 1 mismatch and a 64% higher risk (hazard ratio, 1.64, 95% confidence interval, 1.56-1.73) with 6 mismatches. Dividing the mismatch categories into 27 ordered permutations, and testing their 57 within mismatch category differences, demonstrated that all but 1 were equal, independent of locus.
Conclusions: A significant linear relationship of hazard ratios was associated with HLA mismatch and affects allograft survival even during the recent periods of increasing success in renal transplantation (read more)

Saturday, April 30, 2016

A reliable method for avoiding false negative results with Luminex single antigen beads; evidence of the prozone effect.

Luminex single antigen bead (SAB) assays have become an essential tool in monitoring the status of antibody to the Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) of patients both before and after transplantation. In addition SAB data is used to aid risk stratification to assess immunological risk of humoral rejection in solid organ transplantation (CTAG/BTAG guidelines). Increasingly laboratories are reporting false negative results at high antibody titre due to a prozone effect. Here we report a case study where the prozone effect led to a false negative antibody result that could have resulted in adverse outcome. We describe a method to reliably remove the prozone effect through heat inactivation and the addition of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to the Luminex wash buffer (read more)

Saturday, April 23, 2016

Flow Cytometry Crossmatch Reactivity With Pronase-Treated T Cells Induced by Non-HLA Autoantibodies in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients.

Pronase treatment is used in the flow cytometry crossmatch (FCXM) to prevent nonspecific antibody binding on B cells. However, we have observed unexpected positive results with pronase-treated T cells in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. In this study, 25 HIV-infected patients without HLA antibodies were tested with pronase-treated and nontreated cells. HIV-positive sera were pretreated with reducing agents and preabsorbed with pronase-treated and nontreated T or B cells before crossmatching. All patients displayed FCXM reactivity with pronase-treated T cells but not with nontreated T cells. None of the patients exhibited FCXM reactivity with pronase-treated and nontreated B cells. These patients displayed FCXM reactivity with pronase-treated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells but not with their nontreated counterparts. Preabsorption with pronase-treated T cells reduced the T cell FCXM reactivity. Preabsorption with pronase-treated B cells or nontreated T and B cells did not have any effect on the T cell FCXM reactivity. Pretreatment with reducing agents did not affect the T cell FCXM reactivity. 15 of 21 HIV-infected kidney allograft recipients with pronase-treated T cell FCXM reactivity display long-term graft survival (1,193 ± 631 days). These data indicate that HIV-infected patients have nondeleterious autoantibodies recognizing cryptic epitopes exposed by pronase on T cells. (read more)

Thursday, March 17, 2016

New Classification of Donation after Circulatory Death Donors Definitions and Terminology

In the face of a crisis in organ donation, the transplant community are increasingly utilising donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors. Over the last 10 years, with the increasing usage of DCD donors, we have seen the introduction in a number of new terms and definitions. We report the results of the 6th International Conference in Organ Donation held in Paris in 2013 and report a consensus agreement of an established expert European Working Group on the definitions and terminology regarding DCD donation, including refinement of the Maastricht definitions. This document forms part of a special series where recommendations are presented for uncontrolled and controlled DCD donation and organ specific guidelines for kidney, pancreas, liver and lung transplantation. An expert panel formed a consensus on definitions and terms aiming to establish consistent usage of terms in DCD donation (read more)