Monday, June 11, 2012

Using Donor-Specific Antibodies to Monitor the Need for Immunosuppression

Background: Experience with tolerance protocols has shown that none is perfect and that each escape from tolerance must be identified early to prevent graft failure. In addition, some test is needed for patients who are weaned off immunosuppression (IS) to forewarn of weaning failure. The usual measures of function—such as serum creatinine levels—are not sensitive enough to detect rejection in a timely manner.
Methods: A study was carried out on 72 patients who received living-donor kidney transplants with clonal deletion protocol (total lymphoid irradiation or bortezomib), and followed with reduced doses of maintenance IS. Every month or every 2 months, a test was performed for donor-specific antibodies (DSA) using Luminex mixed and/or single antigen beads.
Results: After transplantation, DSA developed in 17% of the patients at 6 months, 41% at 1 year, and 57% at 2 years, with 95% confidence limits of 10%, 28%; 30%, 55%; and 44%, 71%, respectively. Fifty-three percent of patients weaned IS to less than 10 mg prednisone daily experienced DSA within 3 months. Furthermore, prednisone dose (per 2.5 mg) and years after transplantation were inversely associated with DSA production (risk ratio 0.92 [95% confidence limits: 0.85, 0.99], and 0.70 [0.49, 1.00]).
Conclusions: DSA monitoring is highly effective for detecting escape from tolerance and reemergence of the immune response in weaned patients. DSA appearance was inversely proportional to the level of maintenance drugs in the weaning process. Measurement of DSA on a monthly basis is adequate for detection of the change in immune reactivity (read more). Print this post

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